Thursday, August 1, 2013

1305.2331 (Manlio De Domenico et al.)

Reinterpreting the development of extensive air showers initiated by
nuclei and photons

Manlio De Domenico, Mariangela Settimo, Simone Riggi, Eric Bertin
Ultra-high energy cosmic rays (UHECRs) interacting with the atmosphere generate extensive air showers (EAS) of secondary particles. The depth corresponding to the maximum development of the shower, $\Xmax$, is a well-known observable for determining the nature of the primary cosmic ray which initiated the cascade process. In this paper, we present an empirical model to describe the distribution of $\Xmax$ for EAS initiated by nuclei, in the energy range from $10^{17}$ eV up to $10^{21}$ eV, and by photons, in the energy range from $10^{17}$ eV up to $10^{19.6}$ eV. Our model adopts the generalized Gumbel distribution motivated by the relationship between the generalized Gumbel statistics and the distribution of the sum of non-identically distributed variables in dissipative stochastic systems. We provide an analytical expression for describing the $\Xmax$ distribution for photons and for nuclei, and for their first two statistical moments, namely $\langle \Xmax\rangle$ and $\sigma^{2}(\Xmax)$. The impact of the hadronic interaction model is investigated in detail, even in the case of the most up-to-date models accounting for LHC observations. We also briefly discuss the differences with a more classical approach and an application to the experimental data based on information theory.
View original:

No comments:

Post a Comment